Chesterfield Monthly Meeting was organized in 1684 by Burlington Quarterly Meeting. In 1827, after the Hicksite Separation in Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, the meeting split into Hicksite and Orthodox branches. In 1956, the former Orthodox or Mercer Street meeting merged with the former Hicksite or Hanover Street meeting. In 1974, Chesterfield's two preparative meetings, Crosswicks and Trenton, were established as monthly meetings. Chesterfield Monthly Meeting itself was formally discontinued in 1977.
This collection chiefly consists of men's meeting minutes as well as manumission certificates signed by members of Chesterfield Monthly Meeting, 1774-1796. It also includes several related documents on topics such as the education of free Negroes, and the treatment of Friends who refused to comply with the Anti-Slavery Testimony.